What was the holding in Easley v Cromartie?

What was the holding in Easley v Cromartie?

In 1996, the Supreme Court held that the plan violated the equal protection clause, because (1) race was the legislature's predominant consideration in determining the district's shape and placement; and (2) the plan was not narrowly tailored to serve a compelling state interest.

What did the Miller v Johnson decision state?

Johnson, 5 (1995), was a United States Supreme Court case concerning "affirmative gerrymandering/racial gerrymandering", where racial minority-majority electoral districts are created during redistricting to increase minority Congressional representation.

What was the effect of Easley v Cromartie?

The court's ruling on Ap stated that redistricting for political reasons did not violate Federal Civil Rights Law banning race-based gerrymandering. (Case No. 99-1864). The issue facing this Supreme Court case was Constitutional validity of the Congressional Districts in North Carolina.

What is the significance of Hunt v Cromartie?

Cromartie, 5 (2001). The 12th district of North Carolina as drawn was unconstitutional because it was created for the purpose of placing African Americans in one district, thereby constituting illegal racial gerrymandering.

What did the Supreme Court justices declare in Miller v Johnson 1995 )? Quizlet?

What did the Supreme Court justices declare in Miller v. Johnson (1995)? The racial composition of a district could not be the predominant factor when redistricting. ... manipulation of electoral districts to serve the interests of a particular group.

What is the main issue in Hunt v Cromartie quizlet?

Hunt, the U.S Supreme Court found that North Carolina's legislature violated the Constitution by using race as the predominant factor in drawing its Twelfth Congressional District's 1992 boundaries.

What is it called when two members of Congress share no common interests but agree to support each others bill?

Patronage. ________occurs when two members of Congress share no common interests but agree to support each other's bills. logrolling.

What is a filibuster and how can it be stopped quizlet?

The only way a filibuster can be ended - Senate majority can end a filibuster by adopting a cloture motion. A vote for cloture requires the support of 60 senators, so a coalition of 41 senators may stop the Senate from acting on any issue.

Why is Baker v Carr so important?

This case made it possible for unrepresented voters to have their districts redrawn by federal courts, initiating a decade of lawsuits that would eventually result in a redrawing of the nation's political map.

What was Carr's argument in Baker v Carr?

Case Summary Baker argued that because of population changes in the state, specifically migration to cities, his vote in an urban area had much less weight than that of a voter in a rural district, thus constituting a “debasement of [his] votes.”

What is the main issue in Hunt v Cromartie?

Cromartie, the Supreme Court ruled that the state was able to justify the new boundaries of the 12th district by showing that it was intended to create a safe seat for Democrats, and therefore the redrawn district was a constitutional example of political gerrymandering.

Why did the US Supreme Court rule against the state of Tennessee in Baker v Carr quizlet?

Why did the US Supreme Court rule against the state of Tennessee in Baker v. Carr? Tennessee had discriminated in favor of city voters over rural voters. Tennessee had not redistricted since 1901, keeping rural districts in power.

What happens if the House and Senate versions of a bill are different?

If the House and Senate pass the same bill then it is sent to the President. If the House and Senate pass different bills they are sent to Conference Committee. Most major legislation goes to a Conference Committee.

Which president used a system of zero based budgeting but without success?

Enthusiasm for zero-based budgeting (ZBB) has ebbed and flowed over the four decades since President Jimmy Carter famously tried to use it—without much success—to overhaul federal government spending in the late 1970s.

Why might a president want to exercise a pocket veto quizlet?

If you were the President, under what circumstances might you use a pocket veto? ... When Congress has adjourned, which prevents a bill from returning to Congress or to prevent a bill from returning where it might become a law if it was not signed by the President.